THE BROADENING OF HUMANISM 237 all pre-conceptions and study the facts of nature by the method of induction. Induction as Bacon understands it implies far more than the reaching of general ideas by the simple enumeration of particular cases. It implies the search for the " simple natures " on which the character of the facts studied depends, and this requires a separation of the elements which are fundamental in any concrete instance from those which are not. (3) This method is absolutely certain in its operation and does not call for any unique ability in the using of it. Anyone with the necessary patience and good sense can employ it in the discovery of new knowledge. (4) As an aid to the progress of knowledge, it is necessary to arrange and classify the various branches of learning, so as to find out what is already known and what still requires to be discovered by the scientific method. These principles, though only imperfectly developed by Bacon himself and consequently obscure in their implications, made a great^impressibn on educational..,thought, in^.tM^S^¥exxte^ixth, Cenfiiiy* In ^e new a£e on which men were entering Bacon took the place of Aristotle as the master of those who sought to know and to teach. " The advancement of knowledge " became the catchword of many of those who aspired to a reformation of life and thought, and through them came to be an integral part of the modern ideal of education. BIBLIOGRAPHY ASCHAM, R.: The Schoolmaster, edited by J. E, B. Mayor, London, 1863 ; English Works, edited by W. Aldis Wright, Cambridge, 1904. BACON, FRANCIS : The Philosophical Works, edited by J. M. Robertson, London, 1905 (based on Ellis and Spedding, London, 1857). BRINSLEY, J.: Ludus Literarius, edited by E. T. Campagnac, Liverpool, 1917. CASTIGLIONE, B.: The Courtier (Hoby's Translation), Tudor Library, London, 1900. COLET, J.: J. H. Lupton, Life of John Colet, London, 1887. ELYOT, SIR T.: The Boke named the Governour, edited by H. H. S. Croft, London, 1880, also by Foster Watson (Everyman Library), London, 1907, GILBERT, H.: Queen Elisabeth's Academy, edited by F. J. Furnivall, London, 1869. MONTAIGNE, M.: M. Lowenthal, The Autobiography of Michel de Montaigne, London, 1935 ; Essays, Florio's Translation in the World's Classics, also translated by George B. Ives, Harvard University Press, 1925, and by E. J. Trechmann, Oxford, 1927; G. Compayre*, Montaigne* and the Education of the Judgment, London, 1908; G. Hodgson, The Teacher's Montaigne, London, 1915 j L. E. Rector, Montaigne on the Education of Children, New York, 1899.